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      【英語話題】看看這些國家的語言禁忌

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      發表于 2017-1-18 21:00:02 | 只看該作者 回帖獎勵 |倒序瀏覽 |閱讀模式
             In-laws may be universally intimidating, but in some cultures, the deference paid them rises to a whole new level, at least linguistically.

              姻親也許普遍令人膽怯,但在一些文化中,對他們的遵從上升到了一個全新的高度,至少在語言上是這樣。

              A geographically widespread practice known as avoidance speech, or “mother-in-law languages,” imposes strict rules on how one speaks — or doesn’t — to the parents of a spouse, with daughters-in-law typically bearing the brunt of such limits.

              一種名為回避語言或“婆婆/岳母語言”的做法在地域上分布廣泛。它嚴格規定了如何與配偶的父母說話,或不說話。在這類規則中,兒媳婦承受的限制往往最多。

              In parts of Africa, Australia and India, some societies restrict the words a person can say after marriage. Some cultures have even barred all direct communication with parents-in-law.

              在非洲、澳大利亞和印度的部分地區,一些社會限制人們在結婚后詞語的使用。一些文化甚至完全禁止與公公婆婆或岳父岳母的直接交流。

              Some married women who speak the Kambaata language of Ethiopia follow ballishsha, a rule that forbids them from using words that begin with the same syllable as the name of their father-in-law or mother-in-law.

              埃塞俄比亞一些說坎巴塔語的已婚女性會遵守一項名為巴里什沙的規定,這項規定禁止她們使用開頭的音節與其公公或婆婆姓名相同的詞語。

              This rule can complicate a conversation, but there are workarounds. Certain basic words in the vocabulary come in synonymous pairs. “One is the normal term, used by everybody; one is the term used by women who are not allowed to say that word,” said Yvonne Treis, a linguist at a French research institute, Languages and Cultures of Sub-Saharan Africa.

              這項規定可能會給交談增加困難,但有變通的辦法。某些基礎詞匯是以同義詞的形式成對出現的。“一個是正常的詞,大家都可以使用,另一個是不得用那個詞的女性使用的詞,”法國研究機構撒哈拉以南非洲語言與文化(Languages and Cultures of Sub-Saharan Africa)的語言學家伊馮娜·特雷伊斯(Yvonne Treis)說。

              Euphemisms are another frequent solution: If the word “ox” is taboo for a wife to say, she may refer to “the one that plows” instead. The Kambaata language also has a word akin to “whatchamacallit” in English, useful in a pinch as either a noun or verb when no other alternative is available.

              委婉語是另一個常見的解決辦法:如果“公牛”是妻子不能說的禁忌詞,她可能會說“犁地的那個東西”。坎巴塔語還有一個和英語中的“叫什么來著”(whatchamacallit)類似的詞,可用作名詞或動詞,在沒有其他選擇的緊要關頭頗為有用。

              Avoidance speech is also practiced by speakers of some of the Bantu languages of southern Africa, including Xhosa and Zulu. Married women are forbidden from using their father-in-law’s name, or any word that has the same root or similar sound.

              非洲南部一些語言屬于班圖語的人也會使用回避語言,包括科薩人和祖魯人。已婚女性被禁止使用公公的名字和詞根相同或發音相似的詞。

              Bantu speakers often get around this restriction by borrowing synonyms from other languages spoken nearby. Some linguists think that is how click consonants found their way into Bantu speech: in words borrowed from Khoisan languages, which use clicks extensively.

              說班圖語的人常常通過從附近其他語言中借用同義詞,來避開這種限制。一些語言學家認為,搭嘴音就是這樣進入班圖語的:通過從大量使用搭嘴音的科薩語中借用詞語。

              In parts of India, a daughter-in-law is not allowed to use words that begin with the same letters as her in-laws’ names, requiring her to use a parallel vocabulary.

              在印度的部分地區,兒媳婦不得使用開頭的字母和公公婆婆名字相同的詞,這要求她使用近義詞。

              Avoidance speech was a common feature of many aboriginal languages in Australia. The custom has largely faded in some areas, but it is still widely practiced in the Western Desert region and Arnhem Land, according to Claire Bowern, a professor of linguistics at Yale.

              回避語言是澳大利亞很多土著語言的共同特征。這一習俗在部分地區基本上已經消失了,但據耶魯大學的語言學教授克萊爾·鮑韋恩(Claire Bowern)介紹,在西部沙漠地區和阿納姆地,該風俗仍廣泛流傳。

              Avoidance speech can be more of a two-way street in Australia, with restrictions applying across genders and generations. There are aboriginal cultures where a man and his mother-in-law are forbidden to directly address each other.

              在澳大利亞,回避語言可能更多是一條雙向道,它涉及的限制內容適用范圍跨越了性別和輩分。在一些土著文化中,男性和岳母不得直接交談。

              “In my experience, the taboos between a man and a mother-in-law are a lot stronger than between a woman and her mother-in-law,” Professor Bowern said.

              “以我的經驗,男性和岳母之間的禁忌要比女性和婆婆之間的強很多,”鮑韋恩說。

              As in Africa and India, there are a number of rules in Australian languages about which words one can say in the presence of “tabooed kin,” Professor Bowern said. For example, in the Dyirbal language, spoken in northeast Queensland, water is “bana” in the everyday language but “jujama” in avoidance speech.

              鮑韋恩還說,就像在非洲和印度一樣,澳大利亞的語言中有很多規則,規定了人們在“禁忌親戚”在場時能使用哪些詞。比如,在昆士蘭東北部的迪爾巴爾語中,日常用語中表示水的詞是“bana”,回避語言中則是“jujama”。

              Of course, there isn’t a second word for everything, and one avoidance word often has to suffice for many related ordinary words. In the Guugu Yimithirr tongue, spoken in the far north of Queensland, the verb “bali-l,” meaning to travel, is the all-purpose substitute for more specific words like walk, crawl, limp, paddle or float.

              當然,并不是每一樣東西都有兩個說法,一個回避詞通常不得不滿足代替很多相關普通詞語的需要。在昆士蘭最北部的辜古依密舍語中,動詞“bali-l”意為去旅行,可代替更具體的詞,如走、爬、跛行、用槳劃或漂浮,用途多樣。

              Why did the custom of avoidance speech arise? Some experts on its use in Africa and India see it as a way to reinforce the inferior status of daughters-in-law. In Australia, the prohibitions might have been intended to reduce the chance of sexual relations between in-laws.

              為什么會出現回避語言?一些研究非洲和印度回避語言使用情況的專家認為,它是一種強化兒媳婦劣勢地位的方式。在澳大利亞,禁止使用某些詞或許是為了降低姻親亂倫的可能性。


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